Key recommendations for primary care from the 2022 Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) update

Competing interests

J.D. declares no competing interests. The other authors report the following conflicting interests (including financial and non-financial): M.L.L. has received consultancy fees from Clement Clarke International, Boehringer Ingelheim, AstraZeneca, GSK, Orion, TEVA pharmaceuticals, Menarini, NSHI, Chiesi Pharmaceuticals, Novartis, Aspire, Respiri Ltd (Australia), and Smart Respiratory Products Ltd, speaker fees from TEVA, Novartis, Orion, AstraZeneca, NAPP, Chiesi, and NSHI, and honoraria from ADMIT Group – Consorzio Ferrara Ricerche. M.L.L. is Editor Emeritus of npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, but was not involved in the journal’s review of, or decisions related to, this manuscript. L.B.B. has received grants from NIH/NIAID and NHLBI, personal fees from GlaxoSmithKline Genentech/Novartis, DBV Technologies, Teva, Boehringer Ingelheim, AstraZeneca, WebMD/Medscape, Sanofi, Regeneron, Vectura, Circassia, Kinaset, Vertex, and OM Pharma, and royalties from Elsevier outside the submitted work. E.B. has received speaker honoraria from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Cipla, Chiesi, Hikma pharma, Menarini, Novartis, Sanofi Genzyme, and Regeneron, and consulting fees from AstraZeneca, Sanofi Genzyme, Regeneron, and Novartis. L.-P.B. has received research grants for participation in multicenter studies from Amgen, AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Novartis, Sanofi-Regeneron, and BioHaven, research funding for projects introduced by the investigator from AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, and Merck, consulting and advisory board fees from Astra Zeneca, Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, and Sanofi-Regeneron, lecture fees from AstraZeneca, Covis, Cipla, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis and Merck, and Sanofi, and non-profit grants to produce educational materials from AstraZeneca, Covis, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, and Novartis. C.B. has received consultancy fees or grants (paid to Institution) from GSK, AZ, BI, Novartis, Chiesi, Genentech, Roche, Sanofi, Regeneron, Mologic, and 4DPharma. G.B. has received speaker fees and advisory board fees from Astra Zeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Chiesi, GSK, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, and Sanofi Regeneron. R.B. has received consulting fees or honoraria for lectures from ALK, AstraZeneca, Berlin-Chemie, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Chiesi, Cipla, GSK, Novartis, Roche, Sanofi, and TEVA, and grants to Mainz University Hospital for research or clinical trials, or both from Boehringer Ingelheim, GSK, Novartis, and Roche. A.A.C. has received consultancy and speaker fees from Abdi-Ibrahim, AstraZeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Chiesi, Eurofarma, Glennmark, GSK, Novartis, and Sanofi. A.C.C. is a member of the Planning Group of the Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD)/WHO, and the Executive Director of ProAR Foundation – Brazil. L.D. has received grants from the European Union Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (LIFECYCLE, grant agreement No 733206, 2016; EUCAN-Connect grant agreement No 824989; ATHLETE, grant agreement No 874583) and Stichting Vrienden van Sophia, and speaker fee (paid to institute) from Hong Kong University. L.D. is Vice chair of the Dutch Pediatric Respiratory Society. L.F. has received personal fees from Novartis, Astra Zeneca, and Sanofi, outside the submitted work. H.I. has received speaker and advisory board fees from Astellas, AstraZeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Fukuda-Denshi, GSK, Kracie, Kyorin, Novartis, Omron, Pfizer, and Sanofi, and research grants and support (paid to university) from Asahi-Kasei Pharma, AstraZeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Chugai, GlaxoSmithKline, Kyorin, Otsuka, Teijin, Taiho, and Ono. F.W.S.K. has received funding for conducting multi-center research on asthma from the Hong Kong Thoracic Society (which was supported by AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, and Novartis) with all fees paid directly to the institution. J.A.K. has received consulting fees from GlaxoSmithKline, AstraZeneca, and BData, Inc., and grants and contract fees from Regeneron (COVID-19 clinical trial), Sergey Bring Family Foundation (COVID-19 cohort study), Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (research studies in asthma, COPD, insomnia), National Institutes of Health (research studies in asthma, COPD, acute COVID-19, and post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2), and American Lung Association (asthma and COPD research). K.M. has received advisory board fees from AstraZeneca. P.M.P. has received consultancy and speaker fees from AstraZeneca, GSK, Novartis, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, and Sanofi. A.S. has advised AstraZeneca on an unremunerated basis and has received a research grant from GSK (COVID-19 therapeutics). A.S. is editor emeritus of npj PCRM but was not involved in the journal’s review of, or decisions related to, this manuscript. A.Y. has received consultancy and speaker honoraria from Astra-Zeneca, Novartis, GSK, Chiesi, DEVA, and Abdi İbrahim. A.Y. is Chair of GARD. A.Y. is an editor for npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine but was not involved in the journal’s review of, or decisions related to, this manuscript. H.K.R. has received honoraria for participation in advisory boards for AstraZeneca, Chiesi, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, and Sanofi-Genzyme; and from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Getz, GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi, and Teva Pharmaceuticals for independent medical educational presentations; she has received independent research funding from AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, and Novartis; and consulting fees from AstraZeneca and Novartis. L.P.B. (Chair), E.B., G.B., A.A.C., H.I., J.K., M.L.L., H.K.R., and A.Y. are members of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) Board of Directors. L.B., E.B., L.P.B., C.B., G.B., R.B., J.D., L.D., L.F., H.I., F.K., K.M., P.M.P., H.K.R. (Chair), A.S., and A.Y. are members of the GINA Science Committee. L.P.B., A.A.C., H.I., M.L.L. (Chair), and A.Y. are members of GINA Dissemination and Implementation Task Group.

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